This paper presents the determination of an appropriate compressiveflexural strength model of palm kernel shell concrete (PKSC). The direct and indirect Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) measurements, with respective to mechanical properties of compression (cube) and flexural (slab) elements, of concrete at various mixes and water/cement (w/c) ratios were made.
Cement industry has been always among the largest CO 2 emission sources. Almost 57% of global CO 2 emissions are caused by cement plants, while 900 kg CO 2 is emitted to the atmosphere for producing one ton of cement. In this work, global strategies and potentials toward mitigation of CO 2 emissions in cement plant have been discussed and the most promising approaches have been introduced.
Note a. Traceable to mill185; refers to traceability to the mill/ Crude Palm Oil (CPO) / Palm Kernel (PK) level. b. Traceable to Plantation 178; refers to traceability to mill and then to the source Plantation /CPO/PK and Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) levels. c. Unknown179; refers to oil that is either not traceable to known plantations or that the data on the origin of the oil is insufficient.
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